Thursday, January 29, 2009
Suharto was born on Jun 8 1921. His parents were poor farmers in Kemusuk village in Central Java. In the 1940's he became the battalion commander in the Japanese "self defense corps" when Japan invaded and defeated the Dutch in World War 2. In the 1960's, he rose to power in relative obscurity as a middle ranking army officer after helping to crush an abortive but bloody leftist coup. In 1966, Suharto takes over temporary power as President of The Republic of Indonesia. Eventually, Suharto became the President of The Republic of Indonesia. In 1968, he developed a strong government party and his government, known as the New Order, restricted opposition and allied country with the West. In the 1960's, he started building the Suharto financial empire with the Salim Group and the Nusambra Group. His first big money-making venture was the Bogasari flour mills, which milled wheat imported from the United States. By the 1980's, Suharto's six children built their own empires which now included banks, automobile manufacturing and cigarettes manufacturing. For years, Suharto helped Indonesia's economic growth, as well as his own. Until, consumption and overextending the foreign debt finally caught up to Indonesia in 1997. Suharto got financial help from the IMF but most of the $43 billion went to Suharto's and his family's pockets. After riots over rising food and fuel prices, Suharto money empire was exposed and he eventually resigned May 21, 1998. Suharto's Empire lasted from 1967 to 1998. He is currently ranked as the sixth richest person in the world with an estimated personal wealth of $16 Billion US.
Do not like to talk, does not open, withdrawn, without emotion, Suharto ruled Indonesia for 32 years as a mysterious, a dictator who appears as a figure without a face, that is not prominent in a government that a-political. Speech-fulsome speech, easily forgotten, full of words that bureaucrats humdrum, cliche-cliche outdated, and advice-advice of the righteous. No one can make the statement that people be on it now. Indonesian people, if asked, will be futile because the attempt was a quote that came from him, while on the other hand, even young people can quote the words Sukarno, who digulingkannya president in 1965. Suharto to leave without a word memories.
Rarely interviewed, but often photogenic, it's a movement dikenang body: smile. That he would like to know: disuruhnya a biography of the year 1969, entitled: "General of the smile". That was a smile "Cheshire cat "(*), glued in place, hiding something, does not disclose the content of his heart, and raises questions about the sign-machinate violence and especially the disulap center in the brain that is in the baliknya.
(*) "Cheshire cat", a cat who told the story in the famous illusion, "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland", the work of Lewis Carroll. Cats that can appear and vanish at will; berangsung finally he gradually disappeared and only a senyumnya course, so Alice said: "I often see a cat without a smile, but have never seen a cat without a smile."
Parents Suharto is a mystery. In "otobiografi" it, which was written by people most responsible for the formation of public image, G. Dwipayana, Suharto's claim that he was born among the poor farmers in the village Kemusuk near Yogyakarta. A magazine owned by the military intelligence boss dipercayanya claim in 1974, that his father, a gentleman. In an answer that might be prepared first, Suharto has invited journalists to work in the palace rooms presidency to explain the seed and put witnesses who could corroborate that he was truly a good person, honest and trustworthy. Even though it contradict, the descendants remain clouded. Indonesia among the wide-spread the story that he was not legitimate child of a Chinese trader.
A fun career
No matter what the origin and experience first-time child-kanaknya, in the adult he is clearly a military career. He entered the military in the Netherlands in 1940, which is an event in which "otobiografi" say it as "the key that unlocks the door to a life of fun." Comfortable life that consists of rows and rows-exercise is ongoing in the Japanese occupation, when he became a member militia Map. Like other militia members, he joined the Indonesian national army formed a new military so Japan surrendered in August 1945. No longer possible to serve again in the Netherlands, because the Netherlands has been stripped of power and kekayaannya by Japan and the years of war in concentration camps are dirty and not comfortable.
Thanks to the military exercises that have been diikutinya, Suharto given high rank (lieutenant colonel) in the new Indonesian army, which was formed to conduct guerrilla war against the Dutch soldiers who come back again. In 1948 he became the commander of a brigade troops placed in and around Yogyakarta, the capital of Republic. Attacks guerrilla army is not much helpful in preventing the progress Dutch troops.
Even more dust in the pen itself, Suharto dikejutkan on 19 December 1948 when the Dutch troops in Yogyakarta and burst menguasainya on the same day without the slightest resistance. Somehow, the fourth battalion Suharto was outside the city. That is the worst setback for the Republic: the second tertingginya leaders, Sukarno and Hatta, captivity.
"Politics is located on the tip of my bayonet."
Suharto got the chance to improve when he led an attack against the city of Yogyakarta on 1 March 1949. The attack was only minor damage in the Dutch troops who occupied the city and beaten back within six hours. However, Suharto and other military commanders claim that they have control of the city for a while and the armed forces of the Republic of grandeur to the world. After Suharto's rule in 1965, events that disulap be set victory in the war of independence, and dibuatlah film about the events, "Janur Yellow" (1979), and was established in the city of Yogyakarta, a large monument to mengenangnya (1985).
For people who have worked in three different soldiers in the span of a decade, Suharto has little of the political commitment. One colleague said militernya back on a journalist, that in 1948 Suharto had said, "Politics is located on the tip of my bayonet." No wonder that Sukarno and ministers follow a course that left pertahanannya enter political commissar in the army. Like many soldiers who have been trained under the Dutch and the Japanese officer, Suharto did not have experience in the popular nationalist movement that has fought against imperialism.
Menapak levels according to
Once achieved independence in 1949, Suharto uphill pangkatnya: colonel, brigadier general, lieutenant-general. He had experienced setbacks in the year 1959, when he was dismissed as army commander in Central Java because of corruption. But the event was covered and he was quickly rehabilitated. He led the operation charged seize West Irian from the Netherlands in 1962 - the operation was suspended at the time of the last diplomatic achievement of the agreement. He then moved to Jakarta, and given the position as commander of the Army reserve, Kostrad, in 1963. With a career record that is not prominent, low education, and does not take a foreign language, in 1965 he became a candidate to occupy key positions in the army, and replace acting commander of the Army, Yani, when he went abroad.
Suharto rose to the top of the military, which then becomes a kind of state in the country, has a territorial commander, who initially designed for defense against foreign invasion, but then govern civil society.
Most of the general-general, including the most senior, AH Nasution, very anti-communist bent and hold the power of the PKI increased in the early 1960s. To rival party, they also form a union, organization of artists, and newspapers. They deal with religious organizations and political parties, and convince them that if the military will need to use violence against the PKI.
Suharto does not explicitly take sides in one of the parties. A former PKI members in the parliament said to me, that DN Aidit, the head of the PKI, in early 1965 that a senior officer of Suharto's "democratic" because he supports the closure SOB (war) in 1963. But Suharto is also associated with the anti-communist efforts in tertutupnya to brake anti-Malaysia campaign which started Sukarno in 1963.
A lucky day for him
Sit on the fringe of Suharto was brought in the peak of power. When the military officer of the pro-PKI and pro-Sukarno decided to act against the officer their rivals, they think they will support Suharto. A group of junior officer organize the abduction of seven-general of the Army on 1 October 1965. Two of the gang that is close friend of Suharto, and one of them told Suharto plot plan before going. The kidnapper, who call themselves the Movement September 30, eventually killing six general, including the commander of the Army, Yani. That was a profitable day for Suharto. With absennya Yani, he became commander of the Army. Movement 30 September diotaki not by Suharto but the events that would provide an opportunity for him to achieve the ideals-citanya.
As a military commander, Suharto's start against the commandments of the president's agenda and implement a long-owned by the courageous anti-communist, that is, reducing the influence of a president Sukarno so without power, the PKI, and establish a military dictatorship. Attitude of anti-communist Suharto's not from a deep ideological commitment.
If successful September 30 Movement and the communist achieve greater power, we can easily imagine how the Suharto always oportunistik that adapt with the new regime. He is a regular officer and is not prominent, so that on the first sunday sunday-October that many observers thought he was simply following the direction Nasution.
Coup d'etat crawl
Remove President Sukarno was not too difficult. Malay nationalism of Indonesia, "mouthpiece of the people", continue to protest, but does nothing to stop gun Suharto. He reinforce Suharto as commander of the Army, increase pangkatnya, and gave him emergency powers. The peak of the coup d'etat occurred fours in March 1966, when Suharto using the vague words about "security guarantees" from Sukarno as justification to arrest 15 cabinet ministers and dissolve Sukarno-as though the president himself ordered the overturn.
PKI-prakondisi devastation to implement a new policy of political-dominated military was also not too difficult. PKI leaders, who prop fog after 1 October, calls to its members not to fight so that President Sukarno to organize a political solution to the crisis. But the president have no power over the army Suharto. Working together with the civil militia, the army organized a shambles of the worst 20th century, capturing more than a million people, with the tacit killed many of them. Prisoners-detainees disappeared in the night. Mass graves filled bodies of countless many scattered throughout with no sign of Sumatra, Java and Bali.
There is no document which proves that Suharto ordered the killing of any one. In some of the rare opportunity, when he talked about the murder-murder was in recent years, he blame the civil riot. A thorough investigation of who, where, when and how it related to the murder-murder was revealed that militerlah the most responsible and that Suharto at least acceptance, if not he who gives the oral or written explicitly to do so.
Carrot & whip
In seize power, Suharto and the military officer-officer clicks realize that long-term stability of the power they will be dependent on their ability to improve the lives of the people. They turned on aid, investment and overseas markets to provide the main stimulus for economic growth. Capital of Western Australia boycott because political policy Sukarno first find welcome carpet welcome them unfold. Suharto's own intervention in late 1965 to stop the minister of industry to Sukarno menasionalisir oil sector. With the military campaign against terror unions in the fields of oil-fields, rubber gardens, and factories, capital Jakarta have a docile workforce.
One reason for Suharto's ability to maintain the light of power so long is a policy to expand employment opportunities in the public sector. At the end of his power, 4.6 million people get a salary from the government, three times more than in the early 1970s. Millions of people are more dependent of the employee salary to eat this. Guarantee that the monthly salary of interesting, even though incomes are low. In addition, a number of positions in the government allows people to get more money with corruption.
The civil service and its relative of his family's support base is key to this regime, with the vote and campaigning for the government party, Golkar, in each general election. They are not answerable because Golkar has a hand, giving them food, and lost the chance to move up.
Suharto's response to the protest-use-language now is the 'threat & I fear'. In Papua, he put the army treats the population as the original is lower than the men, who must be caused to bow to the violence. Over the years, the only face seen by the Indonesian people is the army of Papua. Suharto was responsible for tens of thousands of people who died in Papua war against the rebellion of the late 1960s to 1998. He was also responsible for the aggression against East Timor in 1975, and up terbunuhnya more than 100 thousand people there due to the war in the half island. He was also responsible for terbunuhnya thousands of people in Aceh, which is also a victim of war against the rebellion (1990-98), which is designed to meneror civilian population not to support the guerrilla, and not offer an alternative
a more positive to the civilians.
Suharto with intractable stand on the strategy even after the best counter-productive, when the terror been in Papua, Aceh and East Timor produce a more widespread resistance. Only after Suharto's fall, the politicians have the opportunity for Indonesia to seek a political solution & diplomatis a more humane to the war-this war: President Habibie to allow a referendum conducted by the United Nations in East Timor in 1999, and President Yudhoyono signed a peace agreement with the nationalist Aceh in 2005.
'Program Ponzi' (*) is also a giant collapse
In assessing Suharto government, what is called a "balanced" of many Western scholars scrutinize Suharto is about violations of human rights, but praised the performance ekonomisnya. They are impressed by the growth of six percent a year does not vary with the investors that are easy dikibuli in a 'Ponzi Program' (*) giant, who believe that high income is shown on the surface is irrefutable evidence of a success. Economic growth in the years of Suharto's most generated by selling the wild resources, natural resources of the land. That growth is eating itself, and that may not be sustainable.
Sector is the main oil and wood. Both have a great mismanagement because of corruption. On this day in Indonesia is a net importer of oil and forest-forest disappear quickly, be cleared by loggers or burned by the oil palm plantation. Revenue from the export of all that is not invested back into other sectors; money that disappeared from the incoming bank account & the Suharto family kroninya (such as Bob Hasan), and government officials.
'Program Ponzi': an operation & investment false criminal, there are the early investors get the results ( "return") which is paid from a large investment by the investors who came later, and not from the results that come from net activity the correct business.
After three decades of economic growth a la Suharto, the Indonesian government debt burdened many, and the economy does not have a basis to be funded from the industry in the country. Indeed fitting that Suharto, the sectary-memujinya followers as the "Father of Development", died in a hospital that is owned by state oil company (Pertamina), which by their families and kroninya (such as Ibnu Sutowo) diperas limitless.
Suharto's regime living off foreign capital and foreign capital due. Liberalization of the financial sector by the U.S. didesakkan to Indonesia that adopted in the early 1990an result in a greater vulnerability to sudden changes in international capital flows. Money flowed into the gang kleptokrat Suharto and bank-banknya the false, and suddenly flow out again. 'Program Ponzi' giant that is the collapse of a financial crisis in Asia in 1997. The only legitimacy that is owned by Suharto is what seems to appear is the ability to create economic growth. Once it expires, the middle class who are usually the reverse terhadapnya, would not tolerate korupsinya, children are greedy and kroni-kroninya a very immoral light kekayaannya. Movement which spontaneously form of "reform" This is their main enemy KKN: Corruption, collusion & nepotism. Suharto's family own campaign, "I Love Rupiah", which comes from the fact that they have a dollar at most, does not have any weight with the same slogan that movement.
Paranormal lot owned by the family can not save them, not general-general bootlicker them, not even Lieutenant General Prabowo, Suharto's son of the elite troops in Jakarta, and that always wander money from his brother who has the only steel mill in the country that. Suharto's prime minister on May 21, 1998, when Jakarta whiff of smoke still mysterious former riot, there are shops owned by the descendants of Chinese Indonesia burned.
Perhaps the best it can be said about the 32 years of Suharto government is that one-one situation could worsen from now. He did not choose the strategy general-general Burma and isolate the country. Depending on the foreign capital, it is vulnerable to international pressure. Release of tens of thousands of political prisoners in the late 1970s largely due to pressure from abroad. He did not choose to seek legitimacy through religion itself and apply Islamic law. Most of the country remains secular. It does not foster personal cult around himself. When the mass protests in 1998, he chose not to maintain power in any way.
Indonesia deceased great writer, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, who became political prisoners Suharto for 14 years, once wrote that he could not force herself to write about the Suharto regime. While he wrote many historical novels about Java in the era of pre-colonial India and the nationalist movement, he argues there is nothing interesting to write about people who are responsible and do memenjarakannya book-the book. For him, Suharto is a negativitas, what he named a "minus X", a setback to return to the era of the colonial aristokrat, who oppress them subordinate to the interests of European business, but inflate chest exhibit the strength of the great cosmic them, and narrow-mindedness and still does not care about the science and art of Europe that has conquered them. There is no doubt that some people will remember Suharto for some positive things, but while India struggled to a bad inheritance, we wonder whether people can assess gelarnya as the "Father of Development" is as valid as an addition to the guyonan